Biology, 7e (Campbell)
Chapter 24: The Origin of Species
1) Which of the following applies to both anagenesis and cladogenesis?
B) increased diversity
D) more species
E) adaptive radiation
Topic: Concept 24.1
2) Which of the following statements about species, as defined by the biological species concept, is (are) correct?
I. Biological species are defined by reproductive isolation.
brothers to a draper, spending the years between 1880 and 1883 in Windsor and Southsea as a drapeist. In 1883 Wells became a teacher/pupil at Midhurst Grammar School. He obtained a scholarship to the Normal School of Science in London and studied biology there under T.H. Huxley. However, his interest faltered and in 1887 he left without a degree. He taught in private schools for four years, obtaining his B.S. degree until 1980. The next year he settled in London, married his cousin Isabel and continued
ability to steer one's attention and action purposively, existing independently of the subject's perception of it, and having a biographic identity, all of which appear to have their origin from Descartes.Simuarly to Aristotle, Descartes also uses biology to argue why only humans are eligible to be classed as persons. Drawing on predessesors and Christian theologians view that the soul is the essence of a person, Descartes adds to the theory of the soul that it is located and connected to the body
Meiosis and Genetic Diversity in Sordaria
Biology 110 Lab
In Israel there exists multiple spots in the mountains called Evolution Canyons, which are all located between a southern facing slope (SFS) and a northern facing slope (NFS). What’s particularly interesting about these locations is that despite the two slopes being on opposite sides of a small canyon, they exhibit extremely contrasting conditions. The SFS receives multiple times the UV radiation from the sun
discipline. Marine conservationists rely on a combination of scientific principles derived from marine biology, oceanography, and fisheries science, as well as on human factors such as demand for marine resources and marine law, economics and policy in order to determine how to best protect and conserve marine species and ecosystems. Marine conservation can be seen as subdiscipline of conservation biology.
Coral reefs are the epicenter for immense amounts of biodiversity, and are a key
defeats the whole purpose of the women's movement.
Male violence toward women has been a central concern for women's activists since the 1960's. Women Against Violence Against Women (WAVAW) argues that all men are inherently violent, that male biology gave rise the manifestations of murder, rape and violence. Some even say that ritualistic abuse of women such as female torture and traditional practices such as Chinese foot-binding and African clitoridectomy are the defining feature of a patriarchal
—Bryson, on the state of science books used within his school.
Bryson describes graphically and in layperson's terms the size of the universe, and that of atoms and subatomic particles. He then explores the history of geology and biology, and traces life from its first appearance to today's modern humans, placing emphasis on the development of the modern Homo sapiens. Furthermore, he discusses the possibility of the Earth's being struck by a meteor, and reflects on human capabilities
05 August 2013
Chapter 1: Finding Your Inner Fish
Judging by the image of the magazine cover, this chapter will cover fossils as well as evolution. Perhaps it will talk about how land and water organisms are similar.
The magazine cover is Tiktaalik which is a very famous fossil that is the first to show aquatic creatures becoming more associated with being on land and adapting. Tiktaalik is the first
written for The Sunday Times, The Observer, The Guardianand The Independent and has contributed opinion columns on science for the Times.
Dr Marlene Rau was born in Germany and grew up in Spain. After obtaining a PhD in developmental biology at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory in Heidelberg, Germany, she studied journalism and went into science communication. Since 2008, she has been one of the editors of Science in School.
This is a thought-provoking article that uses theoretical science
Page Ref: 16-19
Topic: Evolutionary Perspectives to the 1980s
3. What effect did the mobility of Homo erectus have on the course of human history? Why is this important, and what does it signal about its role in evolutionary biology? The mobility of Homo erectus allowed for the developments of tools such as the Acheulean. They also were the first to expand into different environments, allowing for expansion and population growth. This affected human history in a great way, because
Guam: A mixed transport-establishment model. Conservation Biology, 23(4), 992-1000.
Rodda, G. H., & Savidge, J. A. (2007). Biology and impacts of pacific island invasive species.
2. boiga irregularis, the brown tree snake (reptilia: colubridae). Pacific Science, 61(3),
Savidge, J. A., Qualls, F. J., & Rodda, G. H. (2007). Reproductive biology of the brown tree
snake, boiga irregularis (reptilia: colubridae), during
Your Inner Fish
1. Why should we care about evolution? Why is it important?
Evolution is the building blocks to biological science. If we did not care about evolution, we would not understand the concept of biology, or any type of science for that matter.
2. What does it mean to be human? Did your concept change after reading the book?
After reading the book, I began to understand why my body looks the way it looks. I realized that we are all the same inside—from fish
gay men have symmetrical hemispheres, and lesbians have a larger right hemisphere” (“The Biology of Sexual Orientation”). The size is not the only difference between them.
According to Dr. Simon LeVay, a neuroscientist well known for his research on the brain and sexuality, the levels of a certain group of cells in the hypothalamus known as INAH3 tend to be smaller in gay men than in straight men (“The Biology of Sexual Orientation”). Although his exact findings have not been replicated another group
Biology SL Internal Assessment
What is the effect of heat on vitamin C concentrated in lemon juice?
“Vitamins are complex organic substances that are needed in very small amounts for many of the essential processes carried out in the body.” 1It is estimated and supported scientifically that only a few mg are filling the daily recommendation, which is essential for a healthy living. As most of vitamins cannot be produced by our bodies, we need to obtain
4. Economies in drug R&D process
In this session we have analyzed the economies of scale, scope and learning in the drug R&D process.
The drug discovery process can be divided into several steps: Research activities (including Target biology, Chemical design & synthesis and Lead optimization), preclinical development and clinical development.
As shown in the figure below, this process takes several years and encompasses a wide range of expertise and skills.
Economies of Scale:
Students’ Handbook for Biology HL Year 1). It is the simplest form of carbohydrate. In this experiment, sulphuric acid, H2SO4 and potassium permanganate, KMnO4 is added into glucose with different concentration and the time taken for the purple pink colour of potassium permanganate solution to change to colourless is recorded. This is because glucose donates electrons to the permanganate ions, causing it to change colour (Kolej Mara Banting – Students’ Handbook for Biology HL Year 1).
the fiber. Myosin has tiny globular heads throughout the length that create
cross bridges that play an important roll in the contraction process. (4)
A Closer Look at Myofibrils
From an article in Nature
Reviews on molecular cell biology,
(4) you will see the contractile
elements of the muscle are the
myofibril. A closer look shows a
striated pattern running the entire
length. These patterns are
illustrated in figure 2. Each section
is called a sarcomere
of plants and animals including their differences and similarities. I have learned more about DNA and the process of genes being a part of what makes up each organism.
Vorndam, Margaret E. “General Biology Independent Laboratory Experiences for the College Science Major: First Semester”. Hands-on-Labs, Inc., Sheridan, Colorado. 2012. Print.
dependent patterning in the rostral (anterior) CNS. It is also hypothesized to influence the development of dorsal hindbrain and forebrain. (6)
The vertebrate CNS is a very complex organ that exhibits cellular diversity. The aim of developmental biology has been to solve the challenges in discovering the mechanisms that regulate or lead to the neuronal development. (2)
To decide on the interneural segment specification/ Specification of neural progenitor cells-
Drosophila has been considered
Administration (FDA) but there are two other drugs that are currently in clinical trials. Synaptic is a fairly large company with 1,200 employees. The two main departments that are of issue are the Information Management (IM) and the Computational Biology department. There are no clear define roles and responsibilities of the Synaptic staff and there is a lack of leadership and organizational culture. Additionally, it is unsure exactly what Synapic’s organizational goals and objectives are. This
History and Background
Anagene is a biotechnology firm started by Mark Hansen and Harold Bergman in 1993. Hansen and Bergman planned to combine microelectronics and molecular biology to develop products that would have broad commercial applications in genomics and other fields. Anagene’s mission was to facilitate breakthrough genetic analysis. The company went public in the year 1998 and raised $42.9 million. The company’s core product was a cartridge which had to be analyzed with a Anagene-designed
Biology and Psychology
1. Which of the following would not be possible without the functioning of the nervous system?
ideals, thoughts, and plans
behaviors, emotions, and cognitions
imagery and cognitions
all of these
ANS: D DIF: 2 REF: 2-26 OBJ: 1
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual
2. A(n) _________ is a nerve cell.
ANS: B DIF: 1 REF: 2-26 OBJ: 1
MSC: TYPE: Factual NOT: BTC
the film was about the two major supporting and conflicting characters, Satish Kumar. Mr. Kumar is Pi's biology teacher at his school who is also an active Communist. He is Pi's favorite teacher, and an atheist who sees the zoo as his temple. However, the other Mr. is a Muslim and a baker, with coincidentally the same name as the biology teacher. Satish the baker teaches Pi about Islam. His biology teacher influences him to study zoology in college while the baker helps lead Pi to study religion at
Essential cell biology (4.th ed.). New York, NY [u.a.: Garland Science.
Campbell, N. A., & Reece, J. B. (2011). Campbell Biology. San Francisco, Calif: Benjamin Cummings.
Crick, F. H., et al. General Nature of the Genetic Code for Proteins. Nature 192, 1227–1232 (1961). doi:10.1038/1921227a0.
Fabian, D. & Flatt, T. (2012) Life History Evolution. Nature Education Knowledge 3(10):24
Kurien, B. (2012). Extraction of proteins from gels: A brief review. Methods of Molecular Biology, 869, 403-5.
The Evolution of the Creation Controversy in Twentieth Century America
"The fact of evolution is the backbone of biology, and biology is thus in the peculiar position of being a science founded on an improved theory, is it then a science or faith?" Charles Darwin
"The empirical detectability of intelligent causes renders intelligent design a fully scientific theory." William Dembski
Questions on the origin of life and of the universe must have permeated human thought since
information to produce proteins?
Bacteria belongs to a group of organism that lacks cell nucleus and membrane bound organells. This group of organisms are termed as prokaryotes. Prokaryotes follows the central dogma of molecular biology first proposed by Francis Crick in 1958 to synthesize proteins from mRNA through a process called translation and the mRNA is being synthesized from the DNA by another process called Transcription. Temperature, nutrient availibity are some key factors
membrane causes infections in pigs and humans resulting in cases of meningitis and endocartis. Sialic acid is also associated with P. aeruginosa and the virulence it normally induces. Other lectins that are also of importance in microbiology and/or cell biology are mannose binding lectins which are also associated with virulence.
2.The agglutination is based on binding of the sialic acid to the cell membrane. To confirm that sialic acid carbohyrates are responsible for the binding the cells can be stripped
Web. 19 Feb. 2013.
Brace, R. A. "Result Filters." National Center for Biotechnology Information. U.S. National Library of Medicine, n.d. Web. 19 Feb. 2013.
Farzin, Manoush. Bio 181: General Biology for Majors I. Tempe: Alternative Print & Copy,
Sadava, David E. Life: The Science of Biology. 9th ed. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates,
Wijmans, J. G., and R. W. Baker. "The Solution-diffusion Model: A Review." Journal of Membrane Science 107.1-2 (1995): 1-21. Sciencedirect
BIOLOGY MIDTERM ESSAY
1. How does the biologist determine whether a thing is living or nonliving? Or what characteristics do living organisms have that non-living things do not?
They look at it under a microscope and see if it has cells. Basically, if it has cells the it's alive. If it doesn't have cells it is considered nonliving. There are smaller archaebacteria that behave like small parts of cells. These are considered living too, because they have chemical bonds of RNA, which is the singular
IB SL Biology Lab
Transformation and Electrophoresis
How can a plasmid be engineered to include a foreign piece of DNA and how does gel electrophoresis separate DNA molecules present in a mixture?
If the pGLO plasmid is inserted into competent Escherichia coli cells, then the transformed bacteria will be resistant to ampicillin and will glow green under UV light. If samples of DNA are cut using certain restriction
“economics”, etc. The prefix “eco” has its root in the Greek
word “oikos” which meant “house”. The Oxford English Dictionary cites the German “oecologie” as the first appearance
of “ecology” in 1876, which meant “the branch of biology
that deals with the relationships between living organisms
and their environment. Ecocriticism was defined as the conflation of ecology and criticism.
Ecocriticism is the criticism of the “house”, the environment
as represented in literature. It has
UNIT 1: Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis Word Equation:
Carbon Dioxide + Water Oxygen + Glucose
How to test a leaf for starch:
1. Dip leaf boiling water for about 1 minute to soften it, stop further chemical changes and make the cell more permeable.
2. Turn off Bunsen burner.
Put the leaf into the
[Accessed 14th June 2011]
Enzymes [online]. Available from: http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/E/Enzymes.html [Accessed 14th June 2011]
Wikipedia, 2011. Enzyme substrate (biology) [online]. Available from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enzyme_substrate_(biology) [Accessed 14th June 2011]
Biology Questions and Answers, 2011. Enzyme Activity [online]. Available from: http://www.biology-questions-and-answers.com/enzyme-activity.html [Accessed 14th June 2011]
What Is Catalyst? [online]
Psychology explains how people become attracted to one another. Also, society and the media influence us into thinking what traits are attractive. Some reasons for attraction have to do with familiarity and proximity. Biology also plays a role in determining what traits we will possess. Biology and Psychology work hand and hand to help us pick our mates. The guy Sarah met at the party, Jack, found he had a lot in common with Sarah. In the reward theory of attraction, we tend to respond more positively
AIM: To test a leaf for starch
* bunsen burner, tripod stand, wire gauze(OR 90oC electric water bath OR hot plate)
* 250 cm3 beaker
* boiling tube
* anti- bumping granules
* test tube holder
* white tile
* leaf to be tested (hibiscus leaves are excellent)
* 90% ethanol
* iodine/potassium iodide solution
The video above shows the steps in Testing a Leaf for the Presence of Starch. The Procedure outlined below is
social context. Functionalists choose meaning as objective of linguistic studies, which is closely linked to the world, so they focus on the relation between language and the world, thought and culture.
3, TG grammar takes linguistics towards biology, while systemic functional grammar takes it towards sociology.
Simply to illustrate this point of view, TG grammar believes that language is innate: SF grammar believes that it is learned. TG grammar believes that all human beings possess a grammatical
AP Biology Lab: Catalase (Enzymes)
In this laboratory exercise, studies of enzyme catalase, which accelerates the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen. The purpose was to isolate catalase from starch and measure the rate of activity under different conditions. The laboratory was also conducted in association with a second laboratory that measured the effects of an inhibitor on the enzymes.
Changes in temperature and pH along with Substrate Concentration and Enzyme
organelles that originated from bacteria
(D) are animal type cells with diverse biochemical compartments
(E) only live in extreme environment without oxygen
9. The endosymbiont hypothesis:
(A) has been shown to be false by modern molecular biology
(B) has been outlawed in Kansas
(C) is key evidence in favor of Intelligent Design
(D) explains the origins of chloroplasts and mitochondria
(E) was first described by James Watson and Francis Crick
10. Eukaryotic cells:
(A) are just
Greenslade, MJM 1982, Evolution of the Flora and Fauna of Arid Australia, Frewville, S. Aust, Peacock Publications in association with Australian Systematic Botany Society and ANZAAS, South Australian Division, pp 175-190.
Brown, GD 1974 ‘The Biology of Marsupials of the Australian Arid Zone’ Australian Mammology, Volume 1, pp. 269-288.
Cooper, WJ & Steppan JS 2010, ‘Developmental constraint on the evolution of marsupial forelimb morphology’, Australian Journal of Zoology, vol 58, pp.1-15.
A. Fermentation Lab- The basic process
Prepared 3 beakers with contents listed below. ( a. Beaker 1: glucose only b. Beaker 2: Starch only c. Beaker 3: Starch + amylase). Poured contents of each beaker into its respective fermentation tube, ensuring the tail portion of the tube was filled with liquid. Placed tubes in an incubator at 37 degrees, measuring distance between tip of tube tail to fluid level at 20, 40, and 60 minute intervals. Calculated gas volume using this distance along with radius
Report: Understanding Photosynthesis
Gen Biology Lab
This lab was called photosynthesis: understanding photosynthesis. It is a highly complex process that needs to be broken down in many steps to understand how it works. This lab covers the big components in photosynthesis including carbon dioxide intake, light consumption, and varying pigmentation.
Photosynthesis is a huge concept to learn and understand in the field of biology. Plants have their own special way of
Lauren Van Heukalem
Section No. 1
December 1st, 2014
Wa’ahila Ridge: Percent Cover of Megathyrus maximus and Senna surattensis and its relation to Elevation
Percent cover of both Megathyrus maximus and Senna surattensis is estimated using quadrats on 11 separate plots along Wa’ahila Ridge. Percent cover of these two plant species were compared to the measured elevation using a GPS, in each plot. A p-value greater than .005 for each indicates a lack of significance
Marine Biology and Ecology.
Vol. 345(2): 90-100.
2) Campbell, N.A., & Reese, J.B. 2005. “Population Ecology”. Biology. 7th Edition. San
Francisco, Pearson Education Inc., 1143-1147 pp.
3) Galt, C., D. Huckaby, T. Stanton, P. Baker. 2005. “Ecology”. Laboratory Manual for
Biological Sciences II. 6th Edition. CSULB Bookstore, Long Beach, 105-110 pp.
4) Nedbal, L. and U. Rascher. 2006. Dynamics of Photosynthesis in Fluctuating Light. Current
Opinion in Plant Biology. Vol. 9(6):
dependent variables in this case would be genes and
brain chemistry. Two factors which clearly cannot be manipulated. Genes and brain chemistry would be classified as biological factors, which are factors researchers have no control over.
However, biology and psychology do have a relationship within another field of psychology; psychotropic medicine, which focuses on the area of treating psychological processes. This field also conducts research based on bio-psychological concepts and produces medications
den[y], wil[l], refus[e]; [we] imagin[e]. . . and perceiv[e].” I think these characteristics of thought and our perception—our awareness—are the things that distinguish us from the rest of creation. Our minds do not follow the mechanism of pure biology- we have the ability to sense something and then interpret it in our own. We are capable of choosing to go with or against our evolutionary hardware. If we did not have a mind/soul, then that would not be possible and sitting here and discussing the
scholars in the field of psychology surrounding the Nature vs. Nurture issue. Both nature and nurture determine who we are and neither is solely independent of the other. “As the area of a rectangle is determined by its length and its width, so do biology and experience together create us.”(Myers, 2008, p. 8) Carl Gustav Jung, and leading thinker and creator of analytical psychology, believes: “Human behavior is influenced both by individual experience and also by an innate “collective unconscious”
Cell Biology, 7th edition 2012, Harvey Lodish, Chris A. Kaiser, Anthony Bretscher, et al. Macmillian Higher Education.
 – The structure of the nuclear pore complex, The Annual Review of Biochemistry 2011, Hoelz A, Debler EW, Blobel G
 - http://www.ibiblio.org/virtualcell/textbook/chapter3/nucs2.htm
 – Frank Schluenzen et al, Structure of Functionally Active Small Ribosomal Subunit at 3.3A Resolution
 - http://www.unitus.it/scienze/corsonew/lezione11.html
 – Cell Biology, second
Upper Hutt College
Year 13 Biology
Achievement standard: biology 3.1
Introduction to experiment:
In this investigation of the ecological niche of the woodlouse, I chose to experiment the amount of soil moisture that the slaters tend to prefer. I chose this aspect, as moisture is a vital part in the survival of this small creature.
Internet sources provided information of the woodlice that shows that they are from crustacean descent and formerly aquatic even though now they