volunteer tourism

9760 words 40 pages
Abstract
This paper examines the current state of ‘volunteer tourism,’ both as a field of study and modern phenomenon. The foundation of the review rests upon themes initiated over 10 years ago in Volunteer
Tourism: Experiences That Make a Difference (Wearing, 2001). The review begins with a discussion of the explosive growth of volunteer tourism (research and practice) and continues with an analysis of the literature utilizing a multiphasic format that reflects the volunteer tourism process. Specifically, the paper includes a review of research in the area of pre-trip motivations, continues through work focusing on the volunteer tourism experience itself with emphasis on the role of the volunteer tourism organization and the community,
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Many see volunteer tourism as a form of alternative tourism (Britton & Clarke, 1987; Cohen, 1987, 2003; Dernoi, 1981, 1988; Ellis, 2003; Halpenny &Caissie, 2003; Holden, 1984; McGehee, 2002; Pearce, 1980; Singh, 2002, 2004; Sorensen, 1997; Uriely, Reichel, & Ron, 2003; Wearing, 2001, 2003). Some have placed it broadly as an extension of ecotourism (Gray & Campbell, 2007; Wearing & Neil, 1997), while others have presented it as new tourism(Poon, 1993),niche tourism(Novelli, 2005), or new moral tourism (Butcher, 2003, 2005). Some authors position volunteer tourism with labels such as charity,justice, pro-poor ,or good will tourism (Butcher, 2003; Butcher &Smith, 2010; Rogerson, 2011; Scheyvens 2007; Stoddart &Rogerson, 2004; The erapappisit, 2009). Still others call for differentiations and delineations between domestic and international tourists, volunteer tourists, voluntourists, and volunteers in tourism (Benson & Henderson, 2011; Lyons & Wearing, 2012; Smith& Homes, 2009). These varying definitions and conceptualizations reflect the growing debate and critique within the study of tourism. For the purposes of this review, the authors will focus specifically on international volunteer tourism, exclude volunteering at home, and place volunteer tourism within the alternative tourism perspective. International volunteer tourism generally aligns

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