Organizational Behaviour Individual Assignment

5771 words 24 pages



DATE : 05 APRIL 2009


Contents Page

Executive summary 3
Using shaping as a management tool 4-7
Heredity 8-11
Factors that may contribute to differences in patterns of job satisfaction 12-15
Factors that differentiate good decision makers from poor ones 16-19
Bibliography 20-21

Executive summary

According to Robbins, Judge, Odendaal and Roodt (2009:7), Organizational behavior is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and structure have on behavior within organizations. It says in (Human Behavior: 2009)
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Negative reinforcement is devised to guide a person to the appropriate action in order to avoid the unwanted consequence, known as the aversive stimulus (Wolfgang 32). Negative reinforcement can have long-term effects and must be used sparingly with paying careful attention to the aversive stimuli used (Wolfgang 32). An example of negative reinforcement from (Negative reinforcement: 2008) could be driving in heavy traffic. You leave home earlier than usual one morning, and don't run into heavy traffic. You leave home earlier again the next morning and again you avoid heavy traffic. Your behavior of leaving home earlier is strengthened by the consequence of the avoidance of heavy traffic.
According to (Psychology 101: 2005), punishment refers to adding something aversive in order to decrease a behavior. The most common example of this is disciplining (e.g. spanking) a child for misbehaving. The reason we do this is because the child begins to associate being punished with the negative behavior. The punishment is not liked and therefore to avoid it, he or she will stop behaving in that manner.
According to (Extinction: 2009) extinction is the withholding of reinforcement for a previously reinforced behavior which decreases the future probability of that behavior. For example, a child who climbs under his desk, a response which has been reinforced by attention, is subsequently ignored until the


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