Describe How Bacteria Decode Its Genetic Information to Produce Proteins?

1495 words 6 pages
Describe how Bacteria decode its genetic information to produce proteins?



Intro(10mins)

Bacteria belongs to a group of organism that lacks cell nucleus and membrane bound organells. This group of organisms are termed as prokaryotes. Prokaryotes follows the central dogma of molecular biology first proposed by Francis Crick in 1958 to synthesize proteins from mRNA through a process called translation and the mRNA is being synthesized from the DNA by another process called Transcription. Temperature, nutrient availibity are some key factors that start the process of synthesizing proteins in response to these key factors. Example. This paper will provide an explanation as to how bacteria decode the genetic information to produce proteins.
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As respond to external stimuli like temperature of nutrient availbity, Bacteria synthesizes proteins to respond accordingly. In the absence of lactose, proteins that metabolises lactose are not synthesized due to a lac repressor binding to the DNA. Repressor undergo conformation changes and no longer bind to DNA when lactose is present. Proteins that metabolises lactose can then be synthesized!

Transcription generates 3 kinds of RNA. Transfer RNA(tRNA) carries amino acid to the ribosome for protein synthesis, ribosomal RNA(rRNA) come together to form ribosomes in which messenger RNA(mRNA) is being translated into the proteins. In bacteria, mRNA often carries coding information of more than 1 gene therefore it is said to be polycistronic (DIAGRAM).

Transcription of mRNA is a 3 phase process. First the initation phase where a RNA polymerase binds to the promoter region and begin to transcribe the DNA to mRNA. A subunit of RNA polymerase called the sigma factor helps RNA polymerase to recognise the promoter regions of the stream which typically reside at 10 and 35 basepair upstream before the start of transcription. The hydrogen bonds between

Translation

Translation involves decoding the mRNA and covalently linking amino acids together to form a growing polypeptide. Translation is initiated by formation of an

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