The General Timeline for the Evolution of the Earth

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know the elements of life – and how the reduction and oxidative of some of these drive bioenergetics oxidize carbon (i.e. glucose source) and reduce oxygen (electron acceptor) (CHNOPS) and iron (Fe; trace element; Fe also important to obtain cellular energy).
Nutrition: CHNOPS
Trace Elements: Iron (Fe), Ni, Mg, Mo, Mn, Ca (important in humans due to osteoblastic activity), Co
Occupancy: beat out others for a spot to live, e.g. microbiota (normal flora)
Resistance: defend against microbes, eukaryotes and anything taking over your niche; biofilms can contribute to resistance towards antibiotics or antiseptics Energy can be derived from reductive and/or
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Earth’s early environment was very volatile and inhospitable to the lifeforms that we know today, but archaebacteria regularly thrive in conditions that are analogous to early Earth’s environment. This means that archaebacteria are good candidates for the progeny of the originators of life on Earth, essentially evolved with Earth.

Archaea – no established pathogens? How does this support Woese’s hypothesis as well?
Archaea are not pathogenic for plants or animals, supporting Woese's hypothesis in that they are found only in extreme environments, archaea have evolved and developed their cellular metabolism independent of eubacteria and eukaryotes; therefore, interaction between archaea and eukaryotes (particularly humans) is minimal especially when in regards to pathogenicity. Not antibiotic sensitive, enzymes resemble eukaryotes, extreme thermophiles and methane producers. 16s RNA. It could potentially be a big problem for humans if some archaeal organism went pathogenic as we would have little to quickly combat it.

8.) Know and understand the terms: minimal medium; defined medium; undefined medium; rich medium; prototroph;
Minimal medium:
- minimal medium given for an organism to grow.
-slow growth, more work.
-oxidizes glucose + O2 to produce 50% CO2 50% biomass.
-could be defined medium
-prototroph: don’t require a specific nutrient to grow, converts any carbon source to what it needs (i.e. amino acids).
Defined Medium - a medium that is made up of


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