Acids, Bases, Buffers and Respiration

1777 words 8 pages
ids

Acids, Bases, Buffers and Respiration

Darlene E. McDonald

WCCC Fall 2012

Ap Lab 071-07

Dr. Roxanne Levandosky

August 31, 2012

I. INTRODUCTION:
A.PURPOSE:
a. To define and understand the key terms.
~acid ~buffer system
~base ~acidosis
~pH ~alkalosis
~pH scale ~hypoventilation
~pH indicators ~hyperventilation
b. To determine the acidic or base nature and actual pH of various substances.
c. To discuss the formation of the carbonic acid/bicarbonate ion buffer system in maintaining
homeostasis, especially with regard to ventilation.
B. BACKGROUND:
Homeostasis is the tendency of a system, especially the physiological system of higher animals, to maintain internal stability, owing to
…show more content…
Bases are molecules that can split apart in water and release hydroxide ions. The most common example is sodium hydroxide (NaOH). When NaOH is added to water, it splits apart into Na(+) and OH(-). The hydroxide ions can combine with hydrogen ions (therefore, decreasing the number of hydrogen ions in the solution) to form more water. The principles of how acids and bases react in water form the basis of the pH scale.
The term pH symbolizes the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution (for example, what proportion of a solution contains hydrogen ions). The pH scale goes from 1—14. A pH of 7 is neutral, meaning that the amount of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions in a solution are equal. For example, water has a pH of 7 because when water breaks up, the split is equitable into one hydrogen ion for every hydroxide ion.
If a solution contains more hydrogen ions than hydroxide ions, it is said to be acidic, and the pH of the solution is less than 7. If a molecule releases hydrogen ions in water, it is an acid. The more hydrogen ions it releases, the stronger the acid, and the lower the pH value. The table below shows you the pH of some common substances and may visually help you to figure out the pH scale.
The situation is reversed for bases. If a solution contains more hydroxide ion than hydrogen ion, it is said to be basic, and its pH is higher than 7. Remember that bases dissociate (break apart) into hydroxide ions and a

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