Epidemiology Hepatitis B

1641 words 7 pages
Epidemiology of Hepatitis B
Hepatitis B is a disease that affects many people worldwide and can cause serious and potentially fatal complications. This paper will provide an overview of this disease, including demographic information, while discussing contributing determinants of health, the implications of the epidemiological triangle as it relates to the Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), the role of the community health nurse, as well as identify a national organization that addresses the disease and how it contributes to reducing the impact on society.
Hepatitis B is an infection caused by the Hepatitis B virus that multiplies in the liver, causing inflammation that can involve other organs of the body such as the kidneys and
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They fall under one three categories: Social and Economic environment, Physical environment, and Characteristics and Behaviors. The social/economic environmental factors that affect the transmission of HBV include sexual promiscuity, homosexuality, intravenous (IV) drug users, especially those who share needles, and sharing a living space with an infected individual. Physical environmental factors include imprisonment, healthcare workers, employment in a mental health institution, and unsanitary living conditions (World Health Organization [WHO], 2013). Characteristics and behaviors that place individuals at risk can include aspects of other categories such as having multiple sexual partners, engaging in IV drug use and the sharing of needles, however, poor self-esteem, depression, and anxiety disorders are a few characteristics that can lead to these behaviors (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2011).
Epidemiological Triangle Another way to view HBV is through the epidemiological triangle. This triangle encompasses three factors: A susceptible host, a causative agent, and the environment. All three factors must be present for a disease to cause illness. Any alteration to one of these factors will create a change in the link and disrupt the transmission of the virus (Maurer & Smith, 2013).
Host factors may include demographics such as age, ethnicity, gender, education, marital status, and economic status. Other host factors include medical