Down Syndrome Essay
Down Syndrome is a chromosomal condition related to chromosome 21. It affects 1 in 800 to 1 in 1000 born infants. People who have Down Syndrome have learning difficulties, mental retardation, a different facial appearance, and poor muscle tone (hypotonia) in infancy.
Individuals with Down Syndrome also have an increased risk for having heart defects, digestive problems such as “gastroesophageal reflux or celiac disease”, and hearing loss. Some people who have Down Syndrome have “low activity of the thyroid gland (hypothyroidism)” - an organ in the lower neck that produces hormones.
Down Syndrome can be diagnosed in infancy based on the characteristic medical findings. When Down Syndrome is assumed in a person, a genetic test called a
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Preschool programs for children with Down syndrome include “physical, occupational, speech and educational therapies”. Many adults with Down syndrome have jobs and live independently. Most cases of Down syndrome are not inherited, but occur as random events during the formation of reproductive cells. A mistake in cell division called non-disjunction results in reproductive cells with an unusual number of chromosomes. For example, an egg or sperm cell may gain an extra copy of chromosome 21, if one of these uncharacteristic reproductive cells contributes to the genetic makeup of a child, the child will have an extra chromosome 21 in each of the body's cells. Mosaic Down syndrome is also not inherited. It occurs as a random mistake during cell division early in fetal development. As a result, some of the body's cells have the usual two copies of chromosome 21, and other cells have three copies of the chromosome. Translocation Down syndrome can be inherited. An unaffected person can carry a rearrangement of genetic material between chromosome 21 and another chromosome. This rearrangement is called a balanced translocation because there is no extra material from chromosome 21. Although they do not have signs of Down Syndrome, people who carry this type of balanced translocation are at an increased risk of having children with the condition. They