Leibniz proposed that the earth has a molten core. "He anticipated the distinction between conscious and unconscious states." He had various ideas for the unification of the European nations, for establishing a medical administrative authority, as well as a proposing tax reforms and a national insurance scheme. "It is well understood that Leibniz was a serious inventor, engineer, and applied scientist, with great respect for practical life. Following the motto theoria cum praxis, he urged that theory be combined with practical application, and thus has been claimed as the father of applied science. He designed wind-driven propellers and water pumps, mining machines to extract ore, hydraulic presses, lamps, submarines, clocks, etc. With Denis Papin, he invented a steam engine. He even proposed a method for desalinating water.
As a sinophile, "he noted with fascination how the I Ching hexagrams correspond to the binary numbers from 0 to 111111, and mistakenly concluded that this mapping was evidence of major Chinese accomplishments in the sort of philosophical mathematics he admired." "Leibniz may have been the first computer scientist and information theorist. Early in life, he discovered the binary number system (base 2), the one subsequently employed on all