Compare and Contrast of the Classical School of Management and the Human Relations School of Management
Compare and contrast of the classical school of management and the human relations school of management
The classical or traditional approach to management was generally concerned with the structure and the activities of formal organization. The utmost importance in the achievement of an effective organization were seen to be the issues such as the establishment of a hierarchy of authority, the division of work, and the span of control.
The classical management focuses on the efficiency and includes scientific, bureaucratic and administrative management.
The scientific approach required several major principles in its application to management: 1st – develops a science for each operation to replace opinion and rule-of-thumb. 2nd - it
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A, 2000). The acceptance theory of authority (Barnard, 1886-1961) argues that authority does not so much depend on ‘persons of authority’, as on the willingness to comply of those who receive the orders (Bartol. K. et al, 2001). Barnard felt managers could exert authority on a day-to-day basis, as each individual possesses a ‘zone of indifference’ within which they are willing to accept orders and directions without much question. This allows one to gain an insight into management, and the right way to manage whilst looking out for the employers as well as its employee’s best interest. Fayol argued that management was an activity common to all human undertakings in business, in government, and even at home (Smiths. A, 2000). In the contemporary management practices most managers still believe that Fayol’s principles remain central to the tasks of managing (Davidson. P. et al, 2000). Overall the administrative theory is indeed greatly important in its contributions towards how one perceives management.
The Human Relations approach to management was devised by Elton Mayo and his Hawthorn experiments. It emerged in the 1920s and dealt with the human aspects of organizations. One of the major conclusions of the Hawthorne studies was that worker’s attitudes are associated with productivity. Another was that the workplace is a social
system and informal group influence,