Compare and Contrast the Management Theories of Frederick Taylor, Henri Fayol, Elton Mayo and Douglas Mcgregor. in What Sense(S) Are These Theories Similar and/or Compatible? in What Sense(S) Are These Theories Dissimilar and/or Incompatible? H...

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Compare and contrast the management theories of Frederick Taylor, Henri Fayol, Elton Mayo and Douglas McGregor. In what sense(s) are these theories similar and/or compatible? In what sense(s) are these theories dissimilar and/or incompatible? How would a contingency theorist reconcile the points of dissimilarity and/or incompatibility between these approaches?

The twentieth century has brought in a number of management theories which have helped shaped our view of management in the present business environment. These emerging theories have enabled managers to appreciate new patterns of thinking, new ways of organising and new ways of managing organisations and people. Over the years these different theories have enabled the study
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In particular his five functions of management have had a significant and insightful impact on management thinking and practices over the years and they have served as a foundation for other theories and techniques (Rodrigues, 2001).

The classical approach to management, seen in the theories of Taylor and Fayol, were centred on organising workers in such a way that their performance would be more efficient for the organisation’s productivity (S. C. Certo & S. T. Certo, 2006). In addition, these pioneers developed a more precise definition of what was meant to be a manager’s role, which in turn improved the efficiency and productivity of an organisation. However, these theorists failed to observe the changes in an organisation’s environment and so their ideologies are considered to be universal and simplistic. The classical approach to management underestimated the psychological side of an individual, as it perceived workers as production mechanisms with little room for personal realisation (Karlöf & Lövingsson, 2005).

Given the limitations of the classical school, a new approach surfaced that emphasised the increase in efficiency through a better understanding of the human resources (S. C. Certo & S. T. Certo, 2006). The main contributors to the behavioural viewpoint were Elton Mayo with the Hawthorne Studies and Douglas McGregor with his theory X and theory Y. A