Throughout the last decade and into the current century the older population will continue expand in size and diversity. Individual older people differ greatly from one another in their nutrient requirements and need for nutrition services.
The aging individual in good health who exercises regularly and takes few medications may have nutrient requirements that are similar to those of younger adults of the same sex, build, and health status. Conversely, the chronically ill elderly adult who is regularly taking a wide variety of drugs is likely to have increased need for particular nutrients as compared to his or her peers who enjoy good health. An active older persons living in the community who is able to obtain and prepare …show more content…
These all affect the bioavailability of nutrients and increase the risk of developing a chronic deficiency disease Such as osteoporosis.
Achlorhydria is the insufficient production of stomach acid. The decline in acid can be due to age as well as atrophic gastritis. About 30% of those over age 50 have achlorhydria. Sufficient stomach acid and intrinsic factor are required for the absorption of vitamin B12. Although substantial amounts are stored in the liver, B12 deficiency does occur (Russell 2002).
Constipation is not a disease; it is a symptom. Constipation is defined as having fewer bowel movements than usual, having difficulty or excessive straining at stool, painful bowel movements, hard stool, or incomplete emptying of the bowel. Older adults are more likely than younger adults to become constipated. Primary causes include insufficient fluids, lack of physical activity, and low intake of dietary fiber. Constipation is also caused by delayed transit time in the gut and medications Constipation can usually be alleviated by increasing fluids, activity, and fiber (Cashman, 2009).
5. Metabolic changes:
Basal metabolic rate decreased by 20% between the age of 30 and 90, mainly because of the decrease in lean body mass (Mahan and Escot-stump, 2006).
6. Cardiovascular Changes:
During the aging processes blood vessels become less elastic and total peripheral resistance increases, leading to increase prevalence of hypertension. Serum cholesterol