Hate Crimes Against Gays and Lesbians

1362 words 6 pages
Hate Crimes Against Gays and Lesbians
LaReese Nixon
Kaplan University
CJ490: Research Methods in Criminal Justice

Prof: Deborah Barrett
August 7, 2012

Abstract

Introduction
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender persons frequently face violence motivated by their sexuality or gender identity. Violence may be executed by the state, as in laws prescribing corporal punishment for homosexual acts, or by individuals engaging in intimidation, mobbing, assault, or lynching. Violence targeted at people because of their perceived sexuality can be psychological or physical and can extend to murder. These actions may be motivated by homophobia or trans-phobia, and may be influenced by cultural, religious, or political mores and biases
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This journal had a lot is statistics in number form for you to see and feel the depth in the form of locations and percentages making the results indicate that an extremely small number of programs have such a course or alternatively incorporate LGBT issues within existing race and gender courses. Race, Gender, and Sexual Orientation in Hate Crime Victimization: Identity Politics or Identity Risk? In this study Dunbar examined the impact of hate crimes upon gay and lesbian victims, reviewing 1,538 hate crimes committed in Los Angeles County. Reviewing the differences between sexual orientation and other hate crime categories were considered for offense severity, reportage to law enforcement, and victim impact. The type of offense varied between crimes classified for sexual orientation and other bias-motivated crimes. Assault, sexual assault, sexual harassment, and stalking were predictive of sexual orientation hate crimes. Sexual orientation bias crimes evidenced greater severity of violence to the person and impact upon victim level of functioning. More violent forms of aggression were predictive of gay and lesbian victim's to law enforcement. For sexual orientation offenses, victim gender and race/ethnicity differences were predictive of the base rates of crime reportage as well. Dunbar’s findings are considered in terms of a group-risk hypothesis, encountered by multiple out-group

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