Effective Use of Celebrity Endorsement as an Advertising Strategy
This literature review purpose is to attain a better understanding of effective use of celebrity endorsement as an advertising strategy. The types of sources covered when conducting this research included journals, articles, books and dissertation which relevant to the celebrity endorsement. There are four main parts need to be emphasis, first is the history and background, second is evaluation of three theories model; which consists of TEARS model shows celebrity play an important role in facilitating advertising effectively, The Meaning Transfer Model refers to the description of endorsement process and Elaboration Likelihood Model which deals with circumstances and situation of endorsed product and target audience. …show more content…
Similarity, the ELM proved that the effectiveness of a celebrity endorsement was depends on the target audient’s involvement level. Thus, a celebrity endorser had greater effect on brand attitudes if consumer was low involvement. However, if the celebrity endorser had no effect on brand attitudes while consumer’s involvement was high, then in the advertisement the message arguments were important. This indicated that in low-involvement situation, celebrity might give out a peripheral cue and forming favorable attitudes from consumer perception towards the source instead of remain in the message processing. Conversely, in high-involvement situation, consumer might engage in more detailed evaluation of message processing.
According to Lord, et al. (1995), the values of the message claims are more vital than the endorser identity. Furthermore, Stephenson, et al. (2001) suggests that an effective type of message influence the consumer direction of persuasion. Therefore, many marketers often using creativity tactics in low-involvement product such as razor to highlight peripheral cues and apply repetitive advertising to develop consumer favorable attitudes to their brand (Johansson and Sparredal, 2002).
3.3 THE MEANING TRANSFER MODEL
Figure 3: The Meaning Transfer Model
Source: McCracken, 1989
McCraken (1989) created the meaning transfer model as a complete