Water purification is the process of removing undesirable chemicals, biological contaminants, suspended solids and gases from contaminated water. The goal is to produce water fit for a specific purpose. Most water is purified for human consumption (drinking water), but water purification may also be designed for a variety of other purposes, including meeting the requirements of medical, pharmacological, chemical and industrial applications. In general the methods used include physical processes such as filtration,sedimentation, and distillation, biological processes such as slow sand filters or biologically active carbon, chemical processes such asflocculation and chlorination and the use of electromagnetic radiation such as ultraviolet
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4. Atmospheric water generation is a new technology that can provide high quality drinking water by extracting water from the air by cooling the air and thus condensing water vapor. 5. Rainwater harvesting or fog collection which collects water from the atmosphere can be used especially in areas with significant dry seasons and in areas which experience fog even when there is little rain. 6. Desalination of seawater by distillation or reverse osmosis. 7. Surface Water: Freshwater bodies that are open to the atmosphere and are not designated as groundwater are classified in the USA for regulatory and water purification purposes as surface water.
The processes below are the ones commonly used in water purification plants. Some or most may not be used depending on the scale of the plant and quality of the raw (source) water.
1. Pumping and containment – The majority of water must be pumped from its source or directed into pipes or holding tanks. To avoid adding contaminants to the water, this physical infrastructure must be made from appropriate materials and constructed so that accidental contamination does not occur. 2. Screening (see also screen filter) – The first step in purifying surface water is to remove large debris such