Diagnosis begins with a detailed assessment which includes physical examination, past and present medical history, as well as detailing physical functions such as elimination, exercise, sleep and nutritional status (Bardwell & Taylor 2009, p. 187). The key assessment document applied, is the mental status examination (MSE), an assessment tool that investigates the individuals ‘neurological and psychological’ capacity according to Bardwell & Taylor (2009, p. 184). The MSE allows the assessor to capture the intricacies of elements such as the individuals’ appearance, behaviour, speech, mood and effect, form of thought and content, perception, sensorium, cognitive factors and insight (Bardwell & Taylor 2009, p. 185-187).
Videbeck (2011, p. 253) state that a diagnosis must be made by a psychiatrist and when the patient meets the criteria for major affective or mood disorders. The author proposes the assessment of “affect” requires sensitivity of differences in eye contact, acceptable emotional expressions and body language. Diagnosis of schizophrenia is universally guided by criteria listed in ‘The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders’ (DSM) (American Psychiatric Association 2000, cited in Bardwell & Taylor 2009, p. 252), a text produced by the American