Molecular Genetics

894 words 4 pages
1. DNA Nucleotide

[pic]

Nucleotides consist of three parts --- a pentose sugar, a nitrogen-containing base, and a phosphate group. A pentose sugar is a five-sided sugar. Deoxyribose has a hydrogen atom attached to its #2 carbon atom (designated 2'), and ribose has a hydroxyl group atom there. Deoxyribose-containing nucleotides are the monomers of DNA

RNA Nucleotide

[pic]

The left picture shows the nucleotide unit of RNA. Nucleotides differ from nucleosides in that they have phosphate groups. Nucleotides can exist in the mono-, di-, or tri-phosphorylated forms. The most common site of phosphorylation of nucleotides found in cells is the hydroxyl group attached to the 5'-carbon of the ribose.
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3. Explain Central Dogma

Transcription.

Transcription is the making of an RNA molecule off a DNA template. Translation is the construction of an amino acid sequence (polypeptide) from an RNA molecule. Although originally called dogma, this idea has been tested repeatedly with almost no exceptions to the rule being found (save retroviruses). DNA unwinds and unzips at the gene of interest. RNA polymerase hooks up with free RNA nucleotides by the Base Pair Rule then the gene becomes a mRNA. Messenger RNA (mRNA) is the blueprint for construction of a protein. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is the construction site where the protein is made. Transfer RNA (tRNA) is the truck delivering the proper amino acid to the site at the right time. RNA polymerase opens the part of the DNA to be transcribed. Only one strand of DNA (the template strand) is transcribed. RNA nucleotides are available in the region of the chromatin (this process only occurs during Interphase) and are linked together similar to the DNA process.

Translation

The mRNA is being read by the ribosome codon by codon,
Each codon is three bases
Also each codon has an anticodon which matches up with its codon by the Base Pair Rule.
There is also an amino acid with each anticodon
The anticodon and the amino acid are carried by somehting called a tRNA
In the ribosome, it connects the codons and anticodons, but it also connects the amino acids

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