Life Span Development

1406 words 6 pages
Introduction
The goal of the life span perspective of development is to understand how and why all different kinds of people, everywhere, and of every age, change over time (Berger, 2011). Developmental psychologists study the constant changes we experience throughout life, including physical, emotional, social, and cognitive development. Psychologists also study how we are affected by, react to, and process the world around us (Stone, 2011). The first aspect of developmental science is to understand how and why people change. Another aspect of developmental science is to identify universal similarities and differences among people, and then use that information to unify humanity as well as distinguish us as individuals (Berger, 2011).
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Freud believed that sensual satisfaction is linked to major developmental needs and challenges (Berger, 2011). Freud devised the psychosexual stages of development. Each stage includes its own potential conflicts, and how people experience and resolve these conflicts determine personality patterns (Berger, 2011). Freud believed the early stages provide the foundation for adult behavior. The stages are oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital stages. The oral stage is from birth to one year. During this stage, the lips, tongue and gums are the focus of sensations. Sucking provides nourishment for the baby and attachment between mom and baby. The anal stage is from one to three years old. The anus is the focus of sensations. Potty training is crucial to this stage, and pleasure arises from self control. The Phallic stage is from three to six years. According to Freud, the phallus is the most important body part; boys are proud of it and girls wonder why they don't have one. The primary conflict at this stage is a desire to possess the opposite-sex parent; this stage ends with identifying with the same-sex parent (Cherry, 2013). The latency stage is the next . It is from age six to eleven. During this stage, sexual needs are in hibernation. Children focus on socializing, school, and sports. The next stage is the genital stage. It goes from adolescence (approximately age twelve) through adulthood. During this stage

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