Life Span Psychology- Prenatal Development

3072 words 13 pages
Prenatal Development
• In the life span development the shortest is the period of the newborn or infancy
• This period, which begins at conception and ends at birth, is approximately 270 to 280 days in length or nine calendar months.
• How life begins? o New life begins with the union of male sex cell and female sex cell. o These sex cells are developed in the reproductive organs, the gonads. o Male gonad is “testes” and female gonad is “ovaries” o Male sex cell is referred as “spermatozoon” and female sex cell is referred as “ovum”. o Male and female cells differ in two ways o Way 1: in terms of chromosomes
 In mature ovum, there are 23 matched chromosomes (XX)
 In mature spermatozoon, there will be 22 matched chromosomes (XX) and one
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 Personality development: twins have difficulty in developing a sense of personal identity
 Behavior problems: because of rivalry (means competition, opposition etc) behavior problems raise between twins.
4. Ordinal position:
• Refers to the establishment of the new child’s ordinal position among siblings at the time of the conception.
• Eg: second born child holding a position of “baby of the family” will be changed as “middle born” after the new born arrival.
• This shifting may affect the child for short time, but young children tend to adjust these changes.
• Ordinal position doesn’t influence personality and behavior, only the role the individual plays and the treatment he or she receives.
• Factors of ordinal position which affects personality
 Sex. Eg: firstborn girl have to share household work
 Role he or she plays in the family Eg: firstborn boy/girl should take care of the family after their parents.
• Common characteristics associated with ordinal postion
• First-borns:
 Behaves in a mature way because of the association with adults
 Resent (not like) having to serve as models for younger siblings
 Have feelings of insecurity and resentment as a result of central displacement
 Develop leadership abilities
 Are often unhappy
• Middle-borns:
 Learn to be independent and adventuresome as a result of greater freedom
 Resent privileges older siblings are granted
 Act up and break rules to attract parental attention
 Turn to outsiders


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