6070 words 25 pages

The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a satellite-based navigation system that consists of 24 orbiting satellites, each of which makes two circuits around the Earth every 24 hours. These satellites transmit three bits of information – the satellite's number, its position in space, and the time the information is sent. These signals are picked up by the GPS receiver, which uses this information to calculate the distance between it and the GPS satellites.
With signals from three or more satellites, a GPS receiver can triangulate its location on the ground (i.e., longitude and latitude) from the known position of the satellites. With four or more satellites, a GPS receiver can determine a 3D position
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A GPS satellite was launched on May 28, 2010.[44] The oldest GPS satellite still in operation was launched on November 26, 1990, and became operational on December 10, 1990.[45]
The GPS satellite, GPS IIF-2, was launched on July 16, 2011 at 06:41 GMT from Space Launch Complex 37B at the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.[46]
The GPS satellite, GPS IIF-3, was launched on October 4, 2012 at 12:10 GMT from Space Launch Complex 37B at the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.[47]
The GPS satellite, GPS IIF-4, was launched on May 15, 2013 at 21:38 GMT from Space Launch Complex 41 at the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.[48]


A GPS receiver calculates its position by precisely timing the signals sent by GPS satellites high above the Earth. Each satellite continually transmits messages that include the time the message was transmitted satellite position at time of message transmission
The receiver uses the messages it receives to determine the transit time of each message and computes the distance to each satellite using the speed of light. Each of these distances and satellites' locations defines a sphere. The receiver is on the surface of each of these spheres when the distances and the satellites' locations are correct. These distances and


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