Types of Shock
Describe the five different types of shock and include for each, its pathophysiology, clinical manifestations and treatment.
Shock is described as life threatening medical emergency resulting from insufficient blood flow through the body (Huether & Mccance, 2012) There are five types of medical shock. These include septic shock, anaphylactic shock, cardiogenic shock, hypovolemic shock, and neurogenic shock (Huether & Mccance, 2012). Septic shock results from bacteria that multiply in the blood and then releases toxins that decrease blood pressure, thus, impairing blood flow to cells, tissues and organs. It is an acute infection, usually systemic, that overwhelms the body (toxic shock syndrome) (Huether & Mccance, 2012). This
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This can be a result from trauma, burns, surgery, or dehydration from nausea or vomiting. The individuals blood pressure will decrease, thus, blood flow is reduced from cells, tissue and organs (Huether & Mccance, 2012). Symptoms of hypovolemic shock include, anxiety, agitation, cool, clammy skin, confusions, decreases or no urine output, general weakness, pallor, rapid breathing, sweating, moist skin and/or unconsciousness. The greater and more rapid the blood loss, the more severe the symptoms of the shock will be (Heller, 2012). Treatment of hypovolemic shock include keeping the individual warm to avoid hypothermia, having the person lie flat with the feet lifted about 12 inches to increase circulation, replace the blood and the fluids that the individual has lost, and medications to increase blood pressure (Heller, 2012). Neurogenic shock results from injury or trauma to the nervous system (spinal cord, brain). Nerve impulse to blood vessels are impaired, and blood vessels remain dilated and blood pressure decreases (Huether & Mccance, 2012). The major symptom to identifying neurogenic shock is low blood pressure however, other symptoms include, sweaty, cool skin, labored breathing, dizziness and anxiety (Huether & Mccance, 2012). Treatment for neurogenic shock can vary. The initial treatment is