The Rise and Fall of Communism in the Soviet Union
The command system, which is also described as Marxism, socialism, or communism, is both a political and economic philosophy. In a communist economy, the government owns most of the firms, subsequently controlling production and allocation of resources. One of the most well-known and well-documented cases of a communist government took place in the Soviet Union, beginning in 1917 and eventually falling in 1992. Idealistically, communism eliminates social classism and provides equal work for all in a particular society. The government appoints a central planning board to “determine production goals for each enterprise and to specify the amount of resources to be allocated to each enterprise so that it can reach its production goals.”
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We must move forward particularly in power engineering, chemistry, machine building, metallurgy and the fuel industry. We must specialize enterprises on a broader scale, see to the integrated mechanization and automation of production processes and apply the achievements of modern science and technology and the experience of innovators more rapidly in production. Steady growth of labor productivity and reduction of production costs and improvements in the quality of output must become law for all Soviet enterprises. We must strive for a level of industrial and agricultural development that will enable us to meet the public's demand for manufactured goods and foodstuffs ever more fully. Funds that accumulate as a result of over fulfillment of industrial output plans should be channeled primarily to agriculture, light industry, the food industry and other consumer goods industries.”
Khrushchev initiated a new policy called the New Course. This policy placed an emphasis on an increased standard of living and light industry and agriculture. He also lifted the burden on farmers to meet their quotas. Khrushchev’s views were not in accord with command system, and many believed his term marked the beginning of the end of communism in the Soviet Union. Leonid Brezhnev became the second Secretary of the Soviet Communist Party, replacing Nikita Khrushchev, in 1964.