Nu 545 Exam 1 Study Guids

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|Unit 1:The Cell/Genes & Gene-Environmental Interaction/Mechanisms of |This unit will cover Chapters 1-3 & Chapters 6-10 in your McCance & Huether |
|Self-Defense |text. |
|Study Guide Unit 1 | NU 545 |

Chapter 1 – Summary review p 42-43

1. What is metabolic absorption? (p.2, bottom left) All cells take in and use nutrients and other substances from the surroundings. Cells of the intestine and the kidney are specialized to carry out
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(p 29 bottom left) Movement of a substance across a membrane in which a protein transport moves molecules against (or up) the concentration gradient. This requires the expenditure of energy.
15. What are cytokines? (p 35 mid right) AKA growth factors. Peptides that transmit signals within and between cells. Major role in the regulation of tissue growth and development. They overcome intracellular braking mechanisms that tend to restrain cell growth and block progress through the cell cycle. Could this also be cytokins? Molecules produced by cells of the immune system that mediates interactions between cells to kill bacteria during the inflammatory response.
16. Do all cells continue to replicate and divide? (p 41, bottom right) No. Neurons, for instance, are fixed at birth and replacement is impossible thereafter.

Chapter 2 – Summary Review 91-92

17. When normal columnar ciliated epithelial cells of the bronchial lining are replaced by stratified squamous epithelial cells, the process is called? (p. 50, top right) Metaplasia
18. What is the relation between ischemia and ATP? (p 53 bottom right) Ischemia in heart tissue leads to rapid decreases in mitochondrial phosphorylation, which leads to lack of contraction. This result in inadequate ATP production which leads to increased anaerobic metabolism (which generates ATP from glycogen during hypoxia). The reduction in ATP causes the Na-K pumps to fail and cellular swelling results. Calcium