In a Written Paper of 1,200-1,500 Words, Apply the Concepts of Epidemiology and Nursing Research to a Communicable Disease.

1387 words 6 pages
Influenza

Introduction
Influenza is among the most prevalent infectious airborne viral diseases that affect the respiratory system. According to the World Health Organization (2016), the infection majorly affects the throat, nose, and the bronchi, and on rare occasions, it may affect the lungs. Also commonly known as the flu, influenza infection is characterized by sneezing, itchy and running nose as well as throat inflammation. The initial signs and symptoms include fever with temperatures higher that 100F, soreness in the back, myalgia, legs and arm muscles, sweats and chills, frontal or retro-orbital headaches, tachycardia, red, watery eyes, and fatigue. Sometimes, a dry and persistent cough, nasal congestion and discharge occur
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Complications
Influenza-associated pneumonia is the most common complication arising from influenza infection, accounting for with 38 % and 10 % with the A and B respectively. This complication is more prevalent among the immunocompromised, elderly, expectant as well as chronic cardiopulmonary disease patients. Influenza-associated pneumonia causes rapid deterioration and has a high mortality rate of 50 %. Other respiratory complications arising from influenza infection include exacerbations of asthma, cystic fibrosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The non-respiratory complications associated with influenza include myositis, myocarditis, and renal failure (Clark & Lynch, 2011).
Epidemiology
Influenza infections are witnessed throughout the year in tropical areas, while the northern hemisphere has peak seasons beginning at the start of fall and ending in late spring. According to the estimates provided by the World Health Organization (2016), this epidemic accounts for 250,000 to 500,000 deaths yearly throughout the world. There are approximately 5 million diagnosed cases of severe infection per year worldwide. The Center for disease control and prevention estimates an average of 36, 000 flu-related deaths annually, most of which are attributed to the predominant H3N2 virus which is by far more deadly compared to the H1N1 virus. Pediatric cases tend

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