Effect of Schemas on Drawing a Clock
An investigation of the effects of schemas on drawing a clock.
A schema according to Henry Gleitman (2007) is a mental representation that summarises what we know about a certain event or situation. Schemas reflect the fact that many aspects of our experience are redundant and schemas seek to provide a summary of this redundancy.
When an individual encounters an event or situation, they seek to understand it by relating it to a schema. Schemas are useful not only in providing meaning in an experience, but also filling in the gaps resulting from a failure to notice all the details of an event or situation. However, reliance on schematic knowledge can lead to memory error, hence causing an individual to remember the …show more content…
Each drawing was inspected to see if the four on the clock face had been represented correctly as 'IIII' or incorrectly as 'IV'. Results for the 90 subjects using SPSS are presented in Table 1 and Table 2
Table 1 Condition * Four Crosstabulation | | | | four | Total | | | | IIII | IV | | condition | A | Count | 2 | 35 | 37 | | | Expected Count | 12.3 | 24.7 | 37.0 | | | Residual | -10.3 | 10.3 | | | B | Count | 6 | 21 | 27 | | | Expected Count | 9.0 | 18.0 | 27.0 | | | Residual | -3.0 | 3.0 | | | C | Count | 22 | 4 | 26 | | | Expected Count | 8.7 | 17.3 | 26.0 | | | Residual | 13.3 | -13.3 | | Total | Count | 30 | 60 | 90 | | Expected Count | 30.0 | 60.0 | 90.0 |
Table 2 Chi-Square Tests | | Value | df | Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) | Pearson Chi-Square | 45.256a | 2 | .000 | Likelihood Ratio | 48.083 | 2 | .000 | Linear-by-Linear Association | 40.426 | 1 | .000 | N of Valid Cases | 90 | | | a. 0 cells (.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 8.67. |
Table 2 shows there was a significant difference between observed and expected frequency of Condition A, Condition B and Condition C in writing the correct Roman numeral of four, that is IV or IIII when drawing the watch face (chi-square = 45.256, df = 2, p = 0.000).
There is also an association between Conditions and ability to represent the number four correctly on the drawing. Participants in