All About Blood
1.) What is the significance of lower-than-normal hematocrit? Lower-than-normal hematocrit indicates anemia. People with anemia do not have enough hemoglobin, which is the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells. Iron, B12, and folic acid deficiencies, some medications, and pregnancy can cause anemia. There are also more serious causes such as problems with the immune system that cause destruction of red blood cells earlier than normal, chronic diseases including kidney disease and cancer, and problems with bone marrow found in leukemia and lymphoma (MedlinePlus:Anemia, 2012).
What is the effect of a bacterial infection on the hematocrit? A bacterial infection, which raises white blood cell …show more content…
This WBC is a basophil and makes up 0.5-1% of the total WBCs. Where there is inflammation, basophils leave the capillaries. They enter tissues, and release histamine and heparin. These substances make inflammatory reactions greater and are involved in allergic reactions.
c.) WBC has a U-shaped nucleus and a bluish, foamy cytoplasm with no visible granules. These are monocytes, making up 3-8% of WBCs. They migrate from the blood into tissues, enlarge, and then become macrophages. Some become fixed macrophages and live in a particular tissue, such as the lungs and spleen. Others become wandering macrophages and gather at infection and inflammation sites. They gather at infection sites in large numbers and phagocytize microbes. They also clean up cellular debris after an infection.
d.) WBC contains small, pale lilac granules and a four-lobed nucleus. This type is a neutrophil and makes up 60-70% of WBCs. Neutrophils arrive at an infection site the quickest of all WBCs. After they ingest a pathogen, neutrophils release chemicals to destroy that pathogen. These chemicals include lysozyme, hydrogen peroxide, and hypochlorite. Neutrophils also contain defensins, which are a protein that poke holes in the membrane of the microbe and kills it.
e.) WBC contains red-orange granules and a two-lobed nucleus. This is a sample of an eosinophil and they represent 2-4% of all WBCs. Eosinophils leave the capillaries