There are 11 action taken into account in strategic management. These are forward forward integration, backward integration, horizontal integration, market penetration, market development, product development, related diversification, unrelated diversification, retrenchment, divestiture, and liquidation. Each alternative strategy has countless variations. For example, market penetration can include adding salespersons, increasing advertising expenditures, couponing, and using similar actions to increase market share in a given geographic area.
Backward and forward integration are strategic initiatives companies may perform to reduce risks and interdependencies with external business partners in the supply chain. Fundamentally, companies may increase their control over a wider scope of the supply chain by performing backward and/or forward integration, and increase their own decision-making power over key resources and competencies important to the competitiveness of the organization.
Horizontal integration refers to a strategy of seeking ownership of or increased control over a firm’s competitors. One of the most significant trends in strategic management today