Modernisation and Radical Approach to Development
This essay is an attempt to compare the modernization and radical approaches to development and deciding which approach of the two offers a plausible explanation to what is prevailing in LDCs like Zambia. It will start by defining the major concepts which are development, modernization and radical approach, and then it shall proceed to make a full analysis of the two approaches respectively. The advantages and criticism will be given specifically for the two approaches, and it shall evaluate which one is better helping us in understanding the problems faced in less developed countries. Finally a conclusion will be drawn in summation of the topic.
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Under the psychological approach of modernization, it is argued that the lack of development in less developed countries is caused by the people’s attitudes which are negative; they are fatalistic, superstitious and passive. Their mindsets are oriented towards tradition and religion, if people in the society had innovative and creative minuets, the society would experience high levels of technology and social improvement and the revels is usually true. McClelland tends to identify the need for achievement which is a self conscious desire to do well and also a crucial factor, by spreading among actual and potential entrepreneurs in particular society, this will contribute significantly to economic development, Sapru (1994:105). The sociological approach is usually initiated by changes in the technology and values, as a result of this process institutions multiply, the simple structures of traditional society become progressively more complex and values resemble those of a wealthy advanced industrial society such as the United States of America .This approach has two streams of sociological thoughts feeding into modernization theory. The first one incorporates Marx Weber’s writings on the relationship between Protestantism and the development of capitalism and also concentrates on the cultural and individual psychological pre-requisites of modernization .The second stream stresses