Describe the Main Principles of the Two Normative Ethical Theories of Deontology and Utilitarianism. Compare and Contrast the Two Theories, Bringing Out Any Problems or Limitations You See in Each.

1656 words 7 pages
Describe the main principles of the two normative ethical theories of deontology and utilitarianism. Compare and contrast the two theories, bringing out any problems or limitations you see in each.

Bioethics Essay • Intro: Define ethics and define and introduce the two theories. (philosophical theories…) • Utilitarianism- example • Deontology- example- compare • comparing- evaluating and critically analyzing*- similarities and differences. • Limitations and positives* • Conclusion- summary of essay and own opinion, remember to justify your own views with reasons – don’t just state your opinions without arguing for them in terms of moral values.
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Secondly, humans should be treated as objects of intrinsic moral value; that is, as ends in themselves and never as a mere means to some other end (for example, overall happiness or welfare). This notion is very difficult to justify if one abandons the theological doctrine of man being made in the image of God. Nevertheless, justified or unjustified, deontological ethics imply that humans are ends in themselves with intrinsic value. Thirdly, a moral principle is a categorical imperative that is universalisable; it must be applicable for everyone who is in the same moral situation. Moral statements say, “keep your promises,” “do not murder,” and so forth. Kant states “we should use the maxim of universality to decide whether an action is right or wrong”

Utilitarianism is a theory that suggests that an action is morally right when that action produces more total utility for the group than any other alternative or in the other words “the greatest good for the greatest number’ (Boylan 2009). This is a form of consequentialism, meaning that moral worth of an action is determined by it’s outcome. The utilitarianism view is “the end justifies the means and that outcome as a result of an action has a greater value compared to the later. Ethically one should take advantage of happiness for the good of the society. This approach can also be seen as selfish in nature as it gears on judgment more ideal to the


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