Chapter 5 8

6129 words 25 pages
Chapter 5
1. How did the described volcanoes in Iceland and the Philippines change the environment to lesser or greater extents?
2. Name and describe the attributes of the two categories into which all organisms can be divided based on how they obtain nutrition.
All organisms can be divided into autothrops, which produce their own food, and heterothrops, which need to get their food from somewhere else.
3. Name and describe the roles of the three main trophic categories that make up the biotic structure of every ecosystem. Give examples of organisms from each category.
The main trophic categories are producers (plants), consumers (animals), and decomposers (fungi).
4. Give four categories of consumers in an ecosystem and
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Environmental income is often the safety net that sustains them during lean times and can enable them in good times to generate wealth to improve their well-being.
2. Compare instrumental value and intrinsic value as they relate to determining the worth of natural species. Where does Leopold’s idea of the land ethic fit into these two categories?
A species has instrumental value if its existence or use benefits some other entity. Something has intrinsic value when it has value for its own sake and doesn’t have to be useful to us to possess value.
Leopold believed that the right thing to do is preserve the integrity, stability, and beauty of the biotic community.
3. What are the four categories into which the human value of natural species can be divided? Give examples of each one.
Human value of natural species can be divided into value as sources for food and raw materials; value of sources for medicine and pharmaceuticals; recreational, aesthetic, and scientific value; and value for their own sake.
Wild genes, new food plants, woods, and banking genes are sources for food and raw materials.
Sources for medicine include rosy periwinkle to treat childhood leukemia.
The natural ecosystems provide recreation ranging from fishing to camping.
Intrinsic value can be found in religion and land ethic.
4. What means are used to protect game species, and what are some problems


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