Resistance to Colonial Rule in Africa
By the start of the 20th century, Colonial rule by both the French and the British in Southern Africa had rising expenditure costs. The British method of indirect rule in their colonies, created by Frederick Lugard to leave existing government as it is, had far lower costs than the French method of direct rule. Nonetheless taxation stood as the universal method of keeping all colonies cheap and straightforwardly ran. African’s disgust with a white man telling them to pay for the white man’s endeavors had taken a toll. Protest of colonial rule threatened to endanger British indirect rule. The British would take steps to prevent this from happening. Methods Africans used to protest Colonial rule during the first decades of the 20th century
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In response, on December 13, 1929 a courthouse is burned, followed closely by the enacting of martial law to try to control the uprising. The women’s status in Igbo culture declined, dramatically infuriating the women into a radical rebellion of burning various structures down. Radical resistance is best shown through the women in Nigeria. The Amakholwa’s upsurge as a black, conservative, and educated class in the Cape Colony helped establish political resistance to colonial rule. The Amakholwa appeared from mission work as rejected children, immigrant strangers or social misfits. They soon converted to Christianity to be protected from the outside world. By 1880, Amakholwa numbers ranged in the 10,000’s. Raised in the mission stations these Africans learned to read, write, and wore Western clothing to be known as “Black Englishmen”. This helped to establish them as black educated elite. In 1876, Amakholwa created the Xhosa Messenger ran by John Tengo Jabavu which encouraged other Africans to adopt Western ways to progress through society. This sect of Africans saw themselves as more knowledgeable than the rest of African tribes.
Most of these educated Africans also owned property which gave them a unique opportunity to be able to vote in Southern African elections. The Amakholwa’s high numbers made them a definitive category of people that were able to influence elections. The conservative nature of resistance to influence was known as Cape