Howard Spodek's Chapter 17 Notes

1322 words 6 pages
BRITIAN, 1700-1860
• British cotton textile industry grew into the worlds most productive; its railway network became the nation’s principal means of inland transportation and communication; and a new fleet of steam-powered ships enabled Britain to project its new productivity and power around the globe.
• A Revolution in Agriculture o Jethro Tull invented the seed drill that replaced to old method of scattering seeds by hand on the surface of the soil. o Enclosure acts: laws passed in England in the late 1700s to 1800s that converted public lands held in common into parcels of land to be sold to private owners.
• A Revolution in Textile Manufacture o Most spinning was accomplished using a
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 In Austria, protesting students and workers briefly took control of Prague and Vienna and then were suppressed in both cities by regular forces of the Austrian army at the cost of thousands of casualties.
 Proletariat- in Marxist theory, those who live solely by the sale of their labor.
 Until the revolution would take place, Marx and Engels called for many shorter term legislative goals.
 Marx’s theory included a view of history that saw class struggle as perpetual.
 The proletarian revolution predicted as inevitable by Marx and Engels did not take place in the nineteenth century. o Germany, 1870-1914
 Although Marx was frustrated by the revival of conservative forces in continental Europe around 1848, a new wave of labor unrest and strikes swept across the region in the late 1860s and early 1870s, signaling the growing strength of labor. o The United States, 1870-1914
 Labor began to organize especially with the industrialization that began after the Civil War.
 A series of strikes n America throughout the 1890s led to violence, sometimes in response to falling wages, often in response to poor working conditions or paternalism, the excessive control managers and owners held over workers’ lives.
 The United States did develop powerful labor organizations, mostly in the twentieth century, but it never