During brief, high intensity exercise, adenosine diphosphate is rephosphorylated to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by muscle phosphocreatine stores. As muscle phosphocreatine stores become depleted, performance decreases. Oral creatine supplementation can increase muscle phosphocreatine stores by 6 to 8 percent. Increasing the available muscle stores of phosphocreatine causes faster regeneration of ATP, allowing decreased rest time between activities and increased energy for repeated bouts of exercise. Increased muscle creatine also buffers the lactic acid produced during exercise, delaying muscle fatigue and soreness. As with any ergogenic aid, increased motivation can spring from expected or perceived benefits, causing increased effort (placebo effect).
Creatine research shows generally positive results. A short-term, double-blind, placebo-controlled study7 examined the effects of 28 days of creatine supplementation on 25 football