Cari's Story

954 words 4 pages
A.) How could an infection in Cari’s nasal passages and pharynx spread into her sinuses?
- Since Cari is a smoker, cigarette smoke has paralyzed her cilia and stimulated the goblet cells lining her respiratory passages to secrete excess amounts of mucus. Ducts from the sinuses open into the internal nose providing a passageway for microorganisms to travel into the sinuses.
B.) What is the couch reflex? Describe the process that Cari’s respiratory system is using to clear her lungs by couching.
- A long drawn and deep inhalation followed by a complete closure of the glottis, which results in a strong exhalation that suddenly pushes the glottis open and sends a blast of air through the upper respiratory passages. Stimulus for this
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L.) How would administration of oxygen enhance Cari’s central drive to breathe?
- When PO2 in arterial blood falls from a normal level of 100 mm Hg but is still above 50 mm Hg (which Cari’s is 54mm Hg), the peripheral chemoreceptors are stimulated. Severe deficiency of O2 depressed activity of the central chemoreceptors and inspiritory area which then do not respond well to any inputs and send fewer impulses to the muscles of inhalation.
M.) Which autonomical structures of Cari’s respiratory system were initially involved?
- The structures involved in Cari’s respiratory system were her pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles. Cilia were impaired leading to increased susceptibility to infection.
N.) Why was Cari plagued with a chronic smokers cough?
-After 20 years of a pack a day of smoking it caused excessive mucous production and impaired cilia function. Due to these two things she has a lot of blockage that occasionally needs cleared from her airway which results in the desire to cough. She is at a higher risk for pneumonia due to the compromise on her lungs already.
O.) Which damaging effects of tobacco smoke led to Cari’s impaired respiratory defense mechanism?
- Impaired alveolar macrophages can lead to the impaired defense mechanism. When the alveolar macrophages can’t function properly due to the excess mucous buildup, they

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