4-Mat Review; Leming and Dickinson
2437 words 10 pages4-Mat Review; Leming and Dickinson
Authors Leming and Dickinson (2011) bring the discussion of death, dying and bereavement into the 21st century. Focusing the reader’s attention with a renewed perspective in thanatology, authors help redefine, perpetuate conversation, and add relevance to the topic harmoniously. Orienting the reader to individualistic theories that reach beyond universal attentions, Leming and Dickinson (2011) guide the discussion into a new era of defining a natural, yet, unavoidable topic. A re-education of sorts, thanatology is revived in accordance to contemporary day and time.
Keywords: spirituality, death, dying, bereavement, suicide
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The experience of death usually involves a pet or other animal in nature, thus, familiarizing one to the cycle of life. Family members, storybooks, religion, or even impersonal media related events of death also help to augment the experience for a child. Piaget recognizes stages of developmental influence while Erikson projects cognitive development as the influencing factor in gaining meaning. Psychosocial aspects encompass stages of ambivalence, fear and personification moving into adolescence. Particularly interesting are adolescents. Developmentally they do not usually think in futuristic terms and feelings of empowerment leans toward immortality. However, injustice relates unexpectedly wherein vulnerability hits hard. Psychologist Kasterbaum develops the theory of concrete being and “not being” (p 97), which appropriately collides with the adolescent experience of developing autonomy. This is also influenced by a number of factors such as violence and media. Leming and Dickinson (2011) point out that as we wrestle with the meaning of life, the philosophical stance of emerging optimism is universal into adulthood.
Adulthood poses certain limitations within research due to lack of focus in the field according to Leming and Dickinson (2011). Salient deaths; abortion, violence, AIDS, and the death of a child are commonly perceived in young adulthood. As we age developmentally, the need to reflect upon death transpires, and fear, panic, and denial