International Relations’ Theories Realism vs. Liberalism

3485 words 14 pages
Introduction
Social humanitarian sciences focus on studying global political processes and the object of its research are social phenomena, which are defined as “international relations” in the world we know. International relations are comprised of many different categories, such as foreign policy, international politics or world politics. However, the central issue of international politics is the international relations. The term “international relations” has been first used by English philosopher J. Bentham at the end of 18th century. It is important to note that it is not accidentally that the term appeared at that particular time, as the border line of 18-19th centuries is marked by evolution of the international relations’
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Furthermore, realists believe that since the times of Thucydides, N. Machiavelli or T. Hobbs the nature of international relations did not face any really dramatic changes, thus all the hopes on reforming of the given sphere, building world order, based on legal norms and collective security can be abandoned. The state alone is interested in its security, strengthening of which means
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strengthening the government and its ability to influence other states, leading to state security remaining the core element of the national interests. In the framework of the given paradigm, the main issue for the realism theory is the study of wars and conflicts, while the central problem is the state security. Important to note, that security is seen in terms of the military power and centralgovernance viewpoint, where attention is concentrated on “security dilemma”, in accordance to which the higher security of one state leads to lower security of another. However, it would be wrong to see political realism as a pure return to the traditional views on world politics and international relations; the Second World War has shaped a new reality for many. One of the most important factors of new reality was the birth of a nuclear weapon; the existence of such would inevitably lead to the re-shaping previous views of the international politics

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