Instrumentation in Mathematics

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Title Page i Table of Contents ii-v Theoretical Considerations, Literature and Research Studies on the Use of Learning Aids 1-16 Activity Sheets 17 On Numbers Complete the Skip Counting Series 18-19 On Measurement Metric Length 20 Metric Weight 21 Metric Capacity 22 Compare Metric Measurements 23 Metric System Measurement Conversions 24 Reading a Tape Measure 25 Reading a Decimal Ruler 26 Reading a Metric Ruler 27 Reading a Standard Ruler 28 Measuring in Inches 29 Measuring in Centimeters 30 Converting Feet to Inches 31
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Over half of the students improved their conceptual understanding of fractions on a teacher-designed measure. In another study of 19 second grade students, Moyer, Niezgoda, and Stanley (2005) observed that virtual base-10 blocks enabled students to demonstrate more sophisticated strategies and explanations of place value. Bolyard and Moyer-Packenham (2006) studied the use of virtual manipulatives with 99 sixth grade students learning addition and subtraction of integers.The students showed significant gains in achievement, and the researchers concluded that virtual manipulatives can support learning these concepts.
Two studies have compared the use of virtual manipulatives to more traditional materials. Suh and Moyer (2007) compared the use of concrete and virtual manipulatives in third grade students studying algebraic thinking. Both types of manipulatives were associated with higher achievement and increased flexibility in representing algebraic concepts. Steen, Brooks, and Lyon (2006) compared the academic achievement of a group of first grade students who used virtual manipulatives for practice in geometry instruction (treatment group) to another group who did not (control group). A total of 31 students were randomly assigned to either the treatment or control group. Achievement was measured by the Grade One and Grade Two assessments provided by the classroom textbook’s publisher. The treatment group improved significantly on both


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