AÂ computerÂ is a programmableÂ machineÂ that receives input, stores and automatically manipulatesÂ data, and provides output in a useful format.
The first electronic computers were developed in the mid-20th century (1940â€“1945). Originally, they were the size of a large room, consuming as much power as several hundred modernÂ personal computersÂ (PCs).
Modern computers based onÂ integrated circuitsÂ are millions to billions of times more capable than the early machines, and occupy a fraction of the space.Simple computers are small enough to fit intoÂ mobile devices, and can be powered by a small battery. Personal computers in their various forms areÂ iconsof theÂ Information AgeÂ and are what most people …show more content…
Initially, however, ENIAC had an inflexible architecture which essentially required rewiring to change its programming.
Several developers of ENIAC, recognizing its flaws, came up with a far more flexible and elegant design, which came to be known as the "stored program architecture" orÂ von Neumann architecture. This design was first formally described byÂ John von NeumannÂ in the paperÂ First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC, distributed in 1945. A number of projects to develop computers based on the stored-program architecture commenced around this time, the first of these being completed inÂ Great Britain. The first working prototype to be demonstrated was theÂ Manchester Small-Scale Experimental MachineÂ (SSEM or "Baby") in 1948. TheÂ Electronic Delay Storage Automatic CalculatorÂ (EDSAC), completed a year after the SSEM atÂ Cambridge University, was the first practical, non-experimental implementation of the stored program design and was put to use immediately for research work at the university. Shortly thereafter, the machine originally described by von Neumann's paperâ€”EDVACâ€”was completed but did not see full-time use for an additional two years.
Nearly all modern computers implement some form of