Today, we live in a world interwoven with women's oppression, ecological degradation, and the exploitation of workers, race, and class. In the midst of these troubles, a movement known as ecofeminism appears to be gaining recognition. In the following, I hope to illustrate this revitalization movement . I will begin by characterizing a definition of ecofeminism; I will then bring to the forefront the ethical issues that Ecofeminism is involved with, then distinguish primary ideas and criticisms.
Though in theory, ecological feminism has been around for a number of years, it emerged as a political movement in the 1970s. Francoise d'Eaubonne, a French feminist philosopher, coined the term "Ecofeminism" in 1974. Ecofeminism is a feminist
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Karen Warren states that "The goal of ecofeminist environmental ethics is to develop theories and practices concerning humans and the natural environment that are not male biased and that provide a guide to action in the prefeminist present (37)". Warren defends her version of Ecofeminist ethics by eight features (98); the first aspect of her ethic holds that ethical theory is a "theory-in-process" as it is based on historical and conceptual frameworks (that are ever changing). Secondly, Warren claims that there can be nothing associated with an Ecofeminist ethic that endorses "sexism, racism, classism, naturism, or any other "ism" of social domination".
Thirdly, an Ecofeminist ethic sees ethical discussion and practice as an emergence from entities that have their own history and identity. An Ecofeminist ethic is a narrative, or a shift from "a monist focus on absolute rights and rules to a pluralist focus on various values, principles, narrative constructions, and forms of intelligence. (99)".
Fourth, an Ecofeminist ethic reflects the diversity of perspectives of all that is oppressed or harmed from the destruction of nature. All humans and nonhumans have moral standing.
Fifth, an Ecofeminist ethic makes a claim that in not objective. Sixth, an ecofeminist ethic provides a central place for values typically unnoticed or underplayed in traditional ethics. Warren exemplifies values of care, love, and friendship.
Seventh, the Ecofeminist ethic