What Was the Bauhaus and What Was Its Purpose?
What was the Bauhaus and what was its purpose?
The Bauhaus was a school of art, architecture and design that existed in three German cities including Weimar, Dessau, and Berlin. The school was founded by Walter Gropius in 1919 and it lasted until 1933. During its time, Bauhaus went through different distinct periods under different directors and cities including expressionism, constructivism, functionalism and architecture. The Bauhaus was the start of modernism, at the same time, it changed the face of graphic design, interior design, art and architecture. The Bauhaus’s life was limited because of the political world but Bauhaus continued to have its influence all over the globe even after it dissolved. The most influential architects
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Bauhaus was more influenced by sociological considerations, with special emphasis on urban planning. Hannes Meyer had many enemies and as a director, he rain into trouble trying to run the school. He rejected as formalistic most of the ideals inherited from the Gropius period. In May, 1930, he dissolved the student Communist group and the town council of Dessau was afraid that there was a crisis developing, it dismissed Meyer from his post on April 1, 1930. On Gropius’ recommendation, Miles van der Rohe, the famous architect was appointed on April 5, 1930 as Meyer’s successor. Under his direction (1930-33), formal discipline was tightened up but he was also unable to suppress the political tension coming from right and left. The nationalists, who had become dominant in Dessau parliament, became successful in forcing the closure of the Bauhaus in 1932. Miles van der Rohe continued to run Bauhaus as a private establishment, reopening it in Berlin. The teaching resumed in the autumn of 1932 but on April 11, 1933, the Nazis searched the building on a writ and ordered its provisional closure. The last painters to teach at Bauhaus were Wassily Kandinsky and Josef Albers.
The Bauhaus Manifesto and Programme of 1919 formulated Gropius’ initial priorities. Gropius’ first concern was to establish architecture as the dominant