The Tower of London
The latter soon decided to enlarge and strengthen the Tower of London, the first of a series of building campaigns which by about 1350 had created the basic form of the great stronghold that we know today. Longchamp's works doubled the area covered by the fortress by digging new, deeper ditches to the north and east and building sections of a curtain wall, which were reinforced by the new Bell Tower at the south-west corner. The ditches were intended to flood naturally from the river, yet this plan proved unsuccessful. The new defences were soon put to the test when the King's brother, John, taking advantage of Richard's absence, challenged the Chancellor's authority and besieged him at the Tower. Lack of provisions forced Longchamp to surrender.
The next monarch to substantially develop the Tower of London was Henry III. He was only 9-years old in 1216, but his regents began a major extension of the royal accommodation in the enclosure that formed the Inmost Ward. The great hall and kitchen, dating from the previous century, were improved and two towers built on the waterfront, the Wakefield Tower as the King's lodgings and the Lanthorn Tower, probably intended as the Queen's. By the mid-1230s, Henry III had run into trouble with his barons and opposition flared. On multiple occasions the King fled to the Tower of London. But as he sheltered in