Shaw and Barry
1. Shaw and Barry distinguish two different forms of utilitarianism. What are these two forms? Briefly describe each and use examples.
Two different forms of utilitarianism are described in our text. The first is called act utilitarianism. According to Shaw and Barry, act utilitarianism states that we must ask ourselves what the consequences of a particular act in a particular situation will be for all those affected (p.60).
The second form of utilitarianism is called rule utilitarianism. According to our text, this form of utilitarianism maintains that the utilitarian standard should be applied, not to individual actions, but to moral codes as a whole (Shaw & Barry, p.76).
Rule Utilitarianism is …show more content…
The maximin rule states that we should compare alternatives by the worst possible outcome under each alternative, and we should choose one which maximize the utility of the worst outcome. You should select the alternative in which the worst that could happen to you is better than the worst that could happen to you under any other circumstance (Shaw & Barry, p.122). In other words we should try to maximize the minimum you will receive (Shaw & Barry, p.122).
6. What is the role of the "veil of ignorance" in Rawls' theory of distributive justice?
The veil of ignorance argues that decisions should be made with no consideration to political, financial, or role influence. It’s an imaginative situation that puts all rational people together and lets them make decisions on the justice structure of society without being effected by power or any other influences coming from other people.
7. According to Shaw and Barry, deciding what sort of economic arrangements would best promote human happiness requires the utilitarian to consider many things. What are the five considerations mentioned by Shaw and Barry?
According to Shaw and Barry, the five considerations in deciding what sort of economic arrangements would best promote human happiness are as follows: (1) the type of economic ownership, (2) the way of organizing production and distribution in general, (3) the type of authority