STUDY GUIDE: EXAM 4

1801 words 8 pages
Chapter 29, pp. 1091-1141; Chapter 30, pp. 1142-1208; Chapter 31, pp. 1209-1241; Chapter 32, pp. 1242-1265; Chapter 33, pp. 1266-1309; Chapter 34, pp. 1310-1343
Chapter 26: Altetations of Erythrocyte Function, pp. 989
1. Anemia, pp. 989. Anemia is a areduction in the total number of erythrocytes in the circulating blood or a decrease in the quality or quantity of hemoglobin. Anemias commonly result from (1) impaired erythrocyte production, (2) blood loss (acute or chronic), (3)increase erythrocyte destruction, or (4) a combination of these three. sThe fundamental physiologic manifestation of anemia is a reduced oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood resulting in tissue hypoxia.

Chapter 29: Structure & Function of the
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7. LDL, pp.1162-64. low density lipoproteins, mostly cholesterol and protein. An increase in LDL serum concentration is a strong indicator of coronary risk. LDL is responsible for the delivery of cholesterol to the tissues. Serum levels of LDL is normally controlled by hepatic receptors for LDL that bind LDL and limit liver syntherosis of this lipoprotein. LDL oxidation, migration into the vessel wall, and phagocytosis by macrophages are key steps in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.

8. Raynaud Disease, pp.1149. is a primary vasospastic d/o of unknown origin. Tends t o affect young women and consists of vasospastic attacks triggered by brief exposure to cold or by emotional stress.

9. Heart Failure, pp. 1189-1190. Is defined as the pathophysiologic condition in which the heart is unable to generate an adequate cardiac output such that there is inadequate perfusion of tissues or increased diastolic filling pressure of the left ventricle, or both so that pulmonary capillary pressures are increased. Most causes of HF result in dysfunction of the left ventricle (systolic and diastolic heart failure).

10. CHF, pp1190-1195. Left heart failure, commonly called CHF is categorized as systolic heart failure or diastolic heart failure. Synonyms of these terms are systolic ventricular dysfunction and diastolic ventricular dysfunction. SHF is defined as an inability of the heart ot generate an adequate

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