# Review of Essential Terms and Concepts

1266 words 6 pages
Review of Essential Terms and Concepts
CIS-300

1. The word bit is a contraction for what two words?
Binary digit
2. Explain how the terms bit, byte, nibble, and word are related.
A bit is one digit, a nibble consists of four bits, and a byte consists of eight bits, while a word consists of two or more adjacent its.
3. Why are binary and decimal called positional numbering systems?
Each position in a number of is weighted by a power of the radix
4. Explain how base 2, base 8, and base 16 are related.
Base 2 each bit stands on its own example 1011011111
Base 8 you divide 1011011111 into groups of 3 Example 001-011-011-111
Base 16 you divide 1011011111 into groups of 4 Example 0010-1101-1111
In
How does carry differ from overflow?
In carry, the program allows for carryover and will discard carryover bit for the purpose of the answer. It overflow. This number can change the outcome of the problem. Changing a positive number to a negative. This happens when the results do not fit the capacity of storage area.
17. What is arithmetic shifting?
An arithmetic shift is a way of multiplying or dividing numbers by two.
18. What are the three component parts of a floating- point number?
Signed bit, exponent part, and fractional part (Significand).
19. What is a biased exponent, and what efficiencies can it provide?
All integers in a range are converted into nonnegative integers. By using this method no overflow will occur.
20. What is normalization and why is it necessary?
Normalization is a database design scheme that prevents duplicate and redundant data. It is necessary to ensure that all data is updated.
21. Why is there always some degree of error in floating- point arithmetic when performed by a binary digital computer? Calculations on a computer are in base two, where the results are in base 10, this difference will always give some degree of error. Depending on how far we carry out the calculation determines the actual error.
22. How many bits long is a double- precision number under the IEEE- 754 floating-point standard?
64
23. What is EBCDIC, and how is it related to BCD?
Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code (EBCDIC), it is

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