Philosophy Study Questions
Qiansongzi Chen 1. How might the constructive nature of your perceptions play a role in what you experience while you’re walking at night through a graveyard said to be visited by spirits of the dead?
Constructive perception is in part something that our minds manufacture. Thus what we perceive is determined, not only by what our eyes and ears and other senses detect, but also by what we know, what we expect, what we believe, and what our physiological state is. Just because something seems or feels real doesn’t mean that it is real.
2. What are some of the factors that could influence the accuracy of your memory of an event that happened three years ago?
Our memories are also constructive and …show more content…
“How else can you explain it?” they often ask.
9. What is the argument from unnecessary restrictions? How can it be used to undercut supernatural or paranormal claims?
Unnecessary restriction also called unwarranted design, because the phenomena observed are more limited or restricted than one would expect if the hypothesis were true. To be acceptable, a hypothesis must fit the data: this means not only that the hypothesis must explain tha data, but also that the data explained must be consistent with what the hypothesis predicts. If the hypothesis makes predictions that are not borne out by the data, there is reason to doubt the hypothesis.
10. What is the representativeness heuristic? How does it affect our thinking?
We sometimes led astray by the representative heuristic, the rule of thumb that like goes with like. And we are generally poor judges of probabilities and randomness, which leads us to erroneously believe that an event could not possibly be a mere coincidence.
11. Why can’t personal experience alone establish the effectiveness of a treatment?
Case studies alone generally cannot establish the effectiveness of a treatment beyond a reasonable doubt. The reality is that personal experience alone generally cannot establish the effectiveness of a treatment beyond a reasonable doubt, but controlled scientific studies.
12. What is the