P1 - Explain the Principal Psychological Perspectives.

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The behaviourist perspective:

The behaviourist perspective is an idea that we can understand any type of behaviour by looking at what the person has learner. This includes personality traits such as shyness, confidence, optimism or pessimism. Behaviourist psychologists explain all human behaviour as resulting from experience. Two key psychologists are Pavlov and Skinner, although these two theorists believed that different processes were involved, they both explained all types of behaviour as being the result of learning. This is everything from shyness to aggression and happiness to depression.
Classical conditioning was a theory developed by a Russian psychologist called Ivan Pavlov. He was working with dogs to investigate their
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In response, those who come into contact with us perceive us favourably and behave in a positive way towards us, this results in our positive self-beliefs being confirmed. On the other hand, if we are angry and feel the whole world is against us, then we are likely to behave in a more aggressive way and therefore this is how we will be responded to, which will confirm our views of ourselves and the world.

The Psychodynamic approach:

This approach was created by an Austrian psychologist called Sigmund Freud. Freud was one of the earliest thinkers to bring to public attention the idea that we are not always aware of all aspects of ourselves. He said that we’re are aware of things in our conscious mind, but things like our memories, feelings and past experiences are locked up in a part of our mind called the unconscious. We can’t access the unconscious part of our minds but they leak out in dreams or through a slip of the tongue. Part of the unconscious that we can easily access he called the pre-conscious. This contains information that isn’t in the conscious part of our minds but can be easily retrieved.

Freud believed that early experiences determine behaviours later in life. He developed the psychosexual theory, he believed we all go through several stages of psychosexual development. At each stage, the individuals libido is focused on a part of the body that is particularly relevant at that stage. If the needs


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