Erick Erickson A Psychoanalytical Perspective on human development

2650 words 11 pages
Erickson’s Psychoanalytical Perspective on Human Development
Final Project Paper
Excelsior Community College
Tatiane Boyd

This paper was prepared for PSY 235, Lifespan Development.

The growth and development happening throughout a human’s life have been divided into five broad categories including infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and aging. However, in accordance with Erick Erickson, human development happens in eight different psychosocial stages. And that with every single stage, new conflicts arise. Yet, these crises happening in one’s life should be fully resolved before moving on to the next level. Based on Erickson’s theory of psychosocial development, each one of these stages are
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shame and doubt stage starts around a child’s eighteen months of age, lasting to approximately three years of age. The main focus of energy in this stage, in accordance with Erickson, is to assist a child to acquire autonomy, self-control without letting them feel shame or doubt. Toilet training is a big step in this stage, which can impact a child’s social relations. In this stage, children start gaining control of their motor abilities and can be easily observed trying to explore their surroundings, feed themselves, wash themselves or dress themselves. (Parrish, M. 2009) They also start on developing interests such as instruments, sports, music, arts and crafts. Caregivers should encourage self-sufficiency but without pushing these children too much, otherwise shame and doubt will happen, leading the kids to withdraw, to be dependent instead of independent. (Cherry, K.) Overall, the sense of autonomy can be fostered if parents allow and encourage the child to decide and choose for themselves. (Bornstein, M., & Lerner, R.) However, if denied autonomy, shame and doubt may develop. (Berk, L. 2014)

Stage Three: Initiative versus Guilt
This stage occurs during the preschool years, between the ages of three and five. (Berk, L. 2014) Children begin to asking themselves if they are good or bad. They start to explore new activities and the incentive to start using their imagination in their play time are extremely important. Accomplishment