Epistemology and Knowledge

1753 words 8 pages
Final Paper
Roni Daniel
December 10, 2012
Dr. Kathy Downey
University of Phoenix
PHL/716

Epistemology, or the study of knowledge, requires the scholar analyze the what, how, and why’s of their own knowledge. Asking these questions of themselves is essentially applying that which they have learned. There are different origins of knowledge as conceptualized by philosophers, educators, and scientists. Early philosophers defined knowledge as “justified true belief” (Cooper, pg. 23). In order for an individual to know something it must be true, he or she must believe it, and the belief in it must be justified or rationally reasonable. Later, early modern philosophers required knowledge to be proven and absolute. The scientific
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There are some expectations of teachers and lessons presented to students given by the district. Many professional development hours have been spent on instructing teachers about the specific things that administrators will look for as they do brief observations of classroom instruction. The expectations include teaching explicitly to the essential standards; posting of the essential standard being taught; 80% student engagement during the lesson; display of exemplary work; higher order questioning and thinking skills. Administrators collect this data and share it with grade levels and school wide to help teachers focus on areas that are lacking. Administrator walk-throughs give a quick snap shot of the type of teaching and learning taking place during a lesson and they help to build a holistic picture of the teaching methods and resources being used (Hetzner, 2011). PUSD has placed an emphasis on the strategies needed for effective lessons and, in turn, effective student learning. As a 4th grade teacher for

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