Economische En Sociale Geschiedenis
1. Samenvatting Boek “Before the Industrial Revolution” M.Cipolla 2. Kleine samenvatting Boek “Arm en Rijk” D.Landes 3. Samenvatting algemene hoorcolleges: Migratie & Interbellum
1. Samenvatting Boek “Before the Industrial Revolution” M.Cipolla
CHAPTER 1: Demand (pages: 3 t/m 52)
Spain census of population, 1789, lot of population estimations are rough and not precise. Small societies. Not very large growth of population in 18th century. Low fertility or high mortality is the cause of slow growth. So population of preindustrial Europe remained relatively small. (more in chapter 5).
Normal mortality occurs in normal years. Catastrophic mortality occurs in …show more content…
Public demand: Arose from the 11th century, only 5-8% of national income. Before the 18th century public and private demand were different to distinguish. Distinction: presence of CHURCH as patrimonial & economic entity.
Level and structure of public demand: a. “income” public power (derive from: taxation, public loans (forced), state property exploitation, gain of the mint) b. “wants” of those in power (war/defense/court/civil administration/festivities) c. the price structure and of the community they control
Public powers can increase taxes; income is function of their “wants”.
Public Debt= invention of Italy city-states. Moneys lent to the state by private citizens, mostly forced loans. Citizen would receive interest on the sum lent. Throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance the public powers managed to broaden the tax base & to raise the rate of taxation.
Parties Casuelles were in France the fiscal bureaus. In England and France the revenues of the Crown rose. But also rising prices, growing population, increased wealth. Fiscal privileges for the nobles (adel) hit the poor hardercomplaints! From 12th century sometimes administration was done by noblemen (no salary).
A major expenditure of public money were embassies (representation). But military expenditure surpassed by far all the other expenditures. Also medical and educational