Corrections: Prison and Incarceration
In the 1970s disturbances were common in the correctional system; riots would break out in order for inmates to express their desire for reform and changes in rules. Inmates didn’t approve of the crowded living conditions, harsh rules, poor food, excessive punishment, and guard brutality. Inmates demanded change in the correctional system starting with those involving basic conditions to those concerning basic rights. The prisoners were not given the opportunity to express their feeling of deprivation in the correctional system that was until the upcoming of the ombudsman (Allen, J., & Ponder, 2010).
Secure Holding and/or Monitoring of Offenders 1970s
At the start of the “modern era” inmate …show more content…
In the Supermax Prison 1990s
The first supermax prison was built in 1954 in Mississippi, but such facilities remained rare until the beginning of this era. During 1990s, over twenty-five are constructed, and by 1998 around 20,000 inmates are serving time in conditions that qualify for the supermax label. There is no one definition of “supermax” but the national Institute of Corrections has identified three characteristics of such units. Supermax housing is physically separate from all others, incorporates a highly controlled and restrictive surrounding, and houses inmates classified as high-risk and in need of specialized handling. Twenty-three-hour-lock-down in a solitary cell is routine. During their remaining hour, prisoners may go to an outside cage built for one or they go to the library. They are shackled when outside their cells. In a supermax prison, solitude is considered a management tool, not the road to repentance. Ironically, the courts allow measures to be taken in the name of security and procedure that would be considered cruel and unusual if used as part of the disciplinary plan. Most prisoners are released back into society, even though studies show that such isolation takes a serious toll on inmates and stirs up troubling psychological reactions that may affect their future conduct (Supermax, 2009).